**Notice: AJES is transitioning to an invite-only journal and no longer accepts unsolicited manuscript submissions. Please contact AJES Editor-in-Chief Frederic S. Lee with any questions.**
1. Manuscripts should be double-spaced, with wide margins and printed on one side of paper only. All pages should be numbered consecutively. Titles and subtitles should be short. References, tables, and legends for the figures should be printed on separate pages. Manuscripts should not exceed 10,000 words.
2. The first page of the manuscript should contain the following information: (1) the Title; (2) the name(s) and institutional affiliation(s) of the author(s); (3) an abstract of 50 to 75 words; (4) email address(es) or author(s); (5) 3 to 5 keywords; (6) 2 to 3 Journal of Economic Literature (JEL) codes (http://www.aeaweb.org/journal/jel_class_system.php; and/or (7) 2 to 3 Sociology classification codes (http://www.ovid.com/site/products/fieldguide/soci/Classification_Codes_and_Su.jsp).
3. Footnotes should follow the text at the bottom of the page where the footnote occurs and should include only material that cannot be included in the text. Footnotes are numbered consecutively throughout the text by superscript numerals. They should be double-spaced and should not include display formulae or tables.
4. Displayed formulae should be numbered consecutively throughout the manuscripts as (1), (2), and so on against the right hand margin of the page. In case where derivation of formulae has been abbreviated, it is of great help to the referees if the full derivation can be presented on a separate sheet (not to be published).
5. Quotes should be of the following form:
I cannot admit that a more general distribution of land would not ameliorate the condition of agriculturalists. In support of his theory Mr. George does me the honor of quoting what I wrote in the Corbden Club volume. (Laveleye 1882: 796)
A few pages before the long passage quoted by George, Laveleye had written: “As a rule peasant property is an excellent thing wherever the proprietor is himself the cultivator” (1881: 475).
Use double quotation marks for quoted material in the text, with single quotation marks for quotes within quotes.
6. References to publications should be as follows: “Smith (1992) reported that….” Or “This problem has been studied previously (Smith 1992).” The author should make sure that there is a strict one-to-one correspondence between the names and years in the text and those in the reference list. The list of references should appear at the end of the main text (after any appendices but before tables and legends for figures). It should be double-spaced and listed in alphabetical order by author name.
Use a dash to indicate that a reference is by the exact same author(s) as the one above:
Horowitz, J. (2003). Get Out Now: Winter in Montana. New York: Weather Publishing
————. (2006). “The Devils and Economics.” Journal of Predictable Relationships 54: 123-42.
When there are several references by the same author(s), please arrange them chronologically, with the latest publication listed last.
7. References should appear as follows:
Schumpeter, J. A. (1954). History of Economic Analysis. New York: Oxford University Press.
Lakoff, G., and M. Johnson (1980). Metaphors We Live By. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Bunge, M. (1983). Epistemology and Methodology II: Understanding the World. Boston: D. Reidel Publishing Company
For chapters in edited books:
Aliseda, A. and Gillies, D. (2007). “Logical, Historical, and Computational Approaches.” In General Philosophy of Science: Focal Issues, ed. T. A. F. Kuipers, pp. 431-513. Elsevier: Amsterda
For journal articles:
Witzum, A. (1977). “Distributed Considerations in Smith’s Conception of Economic Justice.” Economics and Philosophy 13(2): 241-59.
Denzau, A. T., and D. C. North. (1994). “Shared Mental Models: Ideology and Institutions.” Kyklos 41(1): 3-31.
Da Silva, S. (2009). “Going Parochial in the Assessment of the Brazilian Economics Research Output.” Economics Bulletin 29(4): 2826-46. http://works.bepress.com/sergiodasilva/88/.
Kodrzycki, Y. K. and Yu, P. (2006). “New Approaches to Ranking Economics Journals.” Contributions to Economic Analysis and Policy 5(1): article 24. http://www.bepress.com/bejeap/contributions/vol5/iss1/art24
Carmona, S., Garcia-Ferrer, A., and Poncela, P. (2005). “From Zero to Infinity: The Use of Impact Factors in the Evaluation of Economic Research in Spain.” Instituto de Empresa Working Paper WP05-22. http://latienda.ie.edu/working_paper_economia/WP05-22.pdf.
Adler, R., Ewing, J., and Taylor, P. (2008). “Citation Statistics.” A report from the International Mathematical Union in cooperation with the International Council of Industrial and Applied Mathematics and the Institute of Mathematical Statistics, available at http://www.mathunion.org/fileadmin/IMU/Report/CitationStatistics.pdf.
Lee, F. S. (2008b). Informational Directory for Heterodox Economists: Graduate and Undergraduate Programs, Journals, Publishers and Book Series, Associations, Blogs, and Institutes and other Websites, 3rd ed. http://www.heterodoxnews.com/directory/index.htm.
Lee, F. S. (2010). “Who Talks to Whom: Pluralism and Identity of Heterodox Economics Journals.” Unpublished.
These should appear in the main bibliography and should include additional details as outlined.
A book, part of a book, a journal, or a journal article which has been published and is also available on the internet should contain the usual reference details followed by the medium (online…), what it’s available through (HTTP, gopher, email) and then the actual electronic address (URL) in angled brackets. Always include the date on which you last accessed the information in brackets:
Smith, A. (1997). Publishing on the Internet, London: Routledge. Online. Available. HTTP: <http://www.ingress.com/~astanart.pritzker.html> (accessed 4 June 1997).
If the reference is to a book, part of a book, journal, or journal article but was published only on the Internet then the entry should be as above but without the place name and published.
If the reference is to a message on a discussion board the entry should be:
Author (year) ‘Subject of message,’ Title of Discussion List. Online posting. Available e-mail: email@example.com (1 August 1999).
If the reference is to a personal e-mail message, do not give out the e-mail address:
Author (year) ‘Subject of message.’ E-mail (30 January 2000).
As online material may be continually updated or revised, you cannot be sure that the material you refer to will not have been changed since the time you cited it. Therefore you should always include the date that you accessed the material.
8. Citing in the Text:
(Buchanon 2004: 69; Willow 1985: 105-121; Smith and Fisher 2008: 2010)
Note that the order inside the parentheses does not need to be either alphabetical or chronological; however, when there is more than one date for a single author, or set of authors, the dates should be chronological.
Do not use ibid.; repeat the reference.
Truncate numbers in a page range: 121-29 not 121-129
It is OK to have initials for authors: Willow, D., and J. McMillan.
Add a, b, c…to distinguish between two or more references with the same author name and year date (Roitt 1999 a, b).
When citing an anonymous editorial in a journal, use the name of the journal and the date, list this reference by the first letter of the journal name.
9. Each section of the article should
Research Quality Ranking of Heterodox Journals
Bibliometric Measure of Research Quality
Social Network Analysis and Research Quality
Results and Discussions
Research Quality-Equality Ranking of Heterodox and Mainstream Journals
10. Please provide all illustrations in electronic format (JPEG, TIFF, EPS). The illustrations should not be inserted in the text and should be marked on the back with figure number, title of paper, and author name. All graphs and diagrams should be referred to as figures and should be numbered consecutively in the text in Arabic numerals. Each entry must contain full publication details; do not use op. cit. or short titles referring to other entries in the references.
11. Tables should be numbered consecutively in the text in Arabic numerals and printed on separate sheets.
12. Grammatical Guidelines
Double-space the text, use one column only, and left align.
Font-Times New Roman
American English: behavior not behaviour
Series comma: black, white, and brown not black, white and brown
Ordinals in superscript: 20th century not 20th century; 3rd edition not 3rd edition
No e.g.; i.e.; or etc.-say what you mean.
No contractions-can’t; won’t….
The word “which” is nearly always preceded by a comma. If no comma seems necessary, most likely the correct word is “that”: “This is the concept that I find most important” not “This is the concept which I find most important.”
Avoid overcapitalization of the names of theories and models: Bayes’s theorem, or even Bayes’s Theorem, is correct but Rational Action Theory of Economics is not.
13. Use italic for titles of books, plays, films, long poems, newspapers, journals (but not for articles in journals), ships. Italic type for emphasis should be used only sparingly. Bold should not be used for emphasis.
Spell out numbers under 10. Use numerals for measurements, 12 km, and ages, 10 years old.
You should use numerals for percentages in the text but spell out ‘per cent,’ 24 percent. The % sign should only be used in tables and figures.
Insert a comma for thousands and tens of thousands, 1,000 and 10,000.
Use minimums numbers for number spans except in ‘teens,’ 25-8, 136-42, 150-1, but 12-16.
Make sure you use the numeral keys on your keyboard for 1 (one) and 0 (zero) and not lower case ‘l’ or an upper case ‘O.’
15. Page proofs will be sent to the corresponding author. Proofs should be corrected carefully; responsibility for detecting errors lies with the author. Corrections should be restricted to instances in which the proof is at variance with the manuscript. Extensive alterations will be charged.
Authors can access PDF offprints through Wiley’s Author Services platform. If interested, authors can purchase hardcopy offprints.
*Any manuscript that does not conform to the above instructions may be returned for the necessary revisions before publication.
Authors should submit their papers to the AJES’ ScholarOne Manuscripts site: http://mc.manuscriptcentral.com/ajes.
Legal considerations. Submission of an article to the AJES–as indicated by the use of these words or their equivalent in the cover letter– implies that the paper is original, unpublished and that is not under consideration elsewhere by any other publication source. By submitting a manuscript the author(s) warrant that they have secured all needed copyrights and now transfer those copyrights to the AJES, Inc., including their own copyright in the original material. The AJES, Inc., will not unreasonably withhold its permission for any author(s) to make copies of the article for his own personal use or the use of his(her) students so long as timely notice is given to the AJES in writing at its editorial office. In the case of multiple authors, the author signing the cover letter is presumed to be the contact person for the team. It is the policy of the AJES to inform the lead author only of all official business surrounding the article.
Authors will be required to assign copyright in their paper to the American Journal of Economics and Sociology, Inc. Copyright assignment is a condition of publication and papers will not be passed to the publisher for production unless copyright has been assigned. (Papers subject to government or Crown copyright are exempt from this requirement). To assist authors an appropriate copyright assignment form will be supplied by the editorial office
Submission Fee. There is no submission fee. It has been our custom to invite authors (or the authors request their institution) to become subscribers and participate in the future development of the journal.
OnlineOpen is available to authors of primary research articles who wish to make their article available to non-subscribers on publication, or whose funding agency requires grantees to archive the final version of their article. With OnlineOpen, the author, the author’s funding agency, or the author’s institution pays a fee to ensure that the article is made available to non-subscribers upon publication via Wiley Online Library, as well as deposited in the funding agency’s preferred archive. For the full list of terms and conditions, see http://wileyonlinelibrary.com/onlineopen#OnlineOpen_Terms
Any authors wishing to send their paper OnlineOpen will be required to complete the payment form available from our website at: https://authorservices.wiley.com/bauthor/onlineopen_order.asp
Prior to acceptance there is no requirement to inform an Editorial Office that you intend to publish your paper OnlineOpen if you do not wish to. All OnlineOpen articles are treated in the same way as any other article. They go through the journal’s standard peer-review process and will be accepted or rejected based on their own merit.
AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS JOURNAL
Agricultural Economics welcomes the submission of new manuscripts at any time, via our simple and secure manuscript-management system.
Use of the Online Submission Web Site
The manuscript management web site offers detailed step-by-step instructions.
Once the paper and supporting information are uploaded, subsequent correspondence with authors, referees and the editors through the web site will be delivered by email and also safely archived on a remote server.
This system ensures that manuscripts and associated documents are handled securely, with password-protected access from anywhere in the world. A link from the site offers continuous technical support, and authors with limited internet access may also contact the journal editors directly.
Preparation of Manuscripts
Articles should be written in American English. Authors are strongly advised to have their manuscripts checked carefully for spelling, grammar and usage before submission. In some cases, authors may wish to have their papers professionally edited prior to submission. A number of commercial editing services are available to authors whose first language is not English, including one offered by Wiley, the publisher of Agricultural Economics. More information about Wiley’s service is available at wileyeditingservices.com. Please note that while this service may greatly improve the readability of your paper, it does not guarantee acceptance of your paper by this or any other journal.
Manuscripts can be prepared using any document-processing software, but must be converted to PDF format for submission. Conversion to PDF can be done using a wide range of software tools, from the originator of the PDF standard (Adobe Acrobat) or from other firms (such as CutePDF). Use of this standard is necessary to maintain the integrity of the paper and the anonymity of authors vis-à-vis referees.
The first page of the manuscript should show the paper’s title and abstract. The manuscript should not state author names, to permit double-blind refereeing. For ease of reading, manuscripts should use wide margins, double spaced text, with all pages numbered consecutively.
Author names, affiliations and the abstract will be submitted separately alongside the manuscript, in plain text for the editors’ use only.
The abstract is typically on the order of 100-200 words, and should provide a concise summary of what the authors have accomplished in the paper. Abstracts can mention the paper’s motivation, but should focus on the evidence, analytical method and main results presented in the paper.
The manuscript submitted for review should be all-inclusive, with references, tables and figures appearing at the end of the manuscript, and NOT in separate files. Formatting should be as in previous issues of the journal, except that tables and figures should be presented together at the end of the manuscript, with each table and figure appearing on a separate page.
When reporting monetary values, the preference for a single-country, location specific study is to report in local currency units. At first use and in relevant tables clearly indicate the USD equivalent, exchange rate prevailing at the time, and the reference year. For a study that involves multiple countries or has relevance for international exchange please convert local units to an reference currency (e.g. USD, Euros, CFA Francs).
Tables and Figures
In presenting data, authors should anticipate the limitations set by the size and layout of the journal. Large and complex tables, figures and maps should be avoided in the main paper, but can be included in a data appendix for use by reviewers. Authors are encouraged to prepare such an appendix, ideally including all data and model code needed to replicate the paper’s main results. Doing so will make each paper much more useful after publication. These data can be disseminated by the journal alongside the article itself, or authors can do so themselves if they prefer.
Any tables and figures that are included in the main text of the paper should be numbered separately, in the sequence that they are mentioned in the text.
Each table and figure should be presented on a separate page of the manuscript, with a brief and self-explanatory title. All text should be clearly legible, and all graphics and legends should be easily distinguished when printed in black and white. Tables should use horizontal lines only, with only blank space to separate columns.
Notes under each table and figure should be used to explain and specify the source of all data shown.
When regression results are being reported in a table, indicate the value of the estimated coefficient and report the standard error of the estimate (not the t-statistic) in parentheses directly below the point estimate. You may indicate statistical significance at standard test levels using asterisks. Similarly, a table of descriptive statistics that reports mean values should also indicate standard deviations in parentheses below the mean. Exceptions are when additional information is being provided for a set of variables (e.g. mean, min, max, std dev, n). For guidance, consult the editor or refer to a recent issue of the journal.
Formulae should be composed in an equations editor where possible, to ensure appropriate spacing and lettering when printed.
Equations should be presented on a separate line and numbered sequentially at the right-hand margin of the page, in parentheses.
All variable names, symbols, subscripts and superscripts should be explained in the text where they are first used.
Footnotes should be used sparingly. In many cases it will be possible to incorporate the information in normal text.
If used, footnotes should be numbered in the text, indicated by superscript numbers, and kept as brief as possible. Equations or other complex text should not appear in footnotes, since they will be difficult to read.
All sources used should be cited in the text using the author’s surname and publication year, with a complete list of references given in alphabetical order following the text of the manuscript. The manuscript should be carefully checked for errors in author’s names, dates and publication details, and to ensure that all citations are in the reference list while all references listed are cited in the text.
Citation style should follow the example of past issues. In the text refer to the author’s name (without initial) and year of publication, followed – if necessary – by a short reference to appropriate pages. Examples: “Since Peterson (1993) has shown that …” “This is in agreement with results obtained later (Peterson and Kramer, 1994 pp.12-16)”. In referring to a personal communication the two words are followed by the year, e.g., “(J. McNary, personal communication, 1984)”.
If reference is made in the text to a publication written by more than two authors the name of the first author should be used followed by “et al.”. This indication, however, should never be used in the list of references. In this list names of first author and all co-authors should be mentioned.
References cited together in the text should be arranged chronologically. The list of references should be arranged alphabetically on authors’ names, and chronologically per author. If an author’s name in the list is also mentioned with co-authors the following order should be used: publications of the single author, arranged according to publication dates – publications of the same author with one co-author – publications of the author with more than one co-author. Publications by the same author(s) in the same year should be listed as 1974a, 1974b, etc.
Reference lists for final publication should follow the example of past issues, for example using the following formats:
Foster, K. A., Mwanaumo, A., 1995. Estimation of dynamic maize supply response in Zambia. Agric. Econ. 12, 99–107.
Alston, J. M., Norton, G. W., Pardey, P. G., 1995. Science under Scarcity: Principles and Practice for Agricultural Research and Priority Setting. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, NY.
For edited volumes
Koo, W., Jinding, L., 1992. An intersectoral perspective on the relationship between the agricultural and industrial sectors in Chinese economic development, in M. Bellamy and B. Greenshields, eds., Issues in Agricultural Development—Sustainability and Cooperation. Dartmouth, Aldershot.
For unpublished reports, departmental notes, etc.
International Seed Federation (ISF), 2002. Estimated values of the commercial markets for seed and planting material for some countries. Accessed October 2002, available at http://www.worldseed.org/statistics.htm.
Authors of empirical papers are strongly encouraged to prepare and submit a data appendix for review and eventual publication alongside the article itself. Such a data appendix typically consists of multiple computer files archived in zip format, with one text-only file entitled “readme.txt” that provides instructions for how to use the other files.
At the review stage, the data appendix should be anonymous, like the paper itself, stripped of any obvious identifying features. After acceptance, the readme file should be edited to include contact information for the authors, citation details for the paper, and any background information needed to interpret the data.
The data appendix should allow replication of a paper’s main results, and in some cases it will allow re-creating of key charts and tables as well as statistical tests, estimation and simulation. The readme file should indicate what software is needed to achieve the replication. For statistical work, the data appendix should typically include a raw data file, one program to transform those data into useful variables, and often a separate program to perform testing and estimation. In a few cases, the data and model cost are combined in a single file.
All variables and commands should be clearly labeled, so that they are self-explanatory to a reasonably skilled reader. Providing such a data appendix will facilitate refereeing, and will greatly enhance the value of published papers. Readers will have more confidence in each result, and will be able to build directly on the data in subsequent work, thus increasing citations and impact.
A footnote to the article will indicate how the data appendix can be obtained. For widest dissemination, it should appear on the publisher’s web site alongside the published article. No assignment of copyright is involved, however, and the data can also be posted elsewhere. A few articles provide analyses of confidential data, in which case we hope to see a data appendix that presents a publishable version of the data, typically at a high enough level of aggregation to prevent recovery of individual-level information.
Authors should ensure that publication of material quoted or reproduced from previous work would not infringe copyright. Brief quotations may generally be reproduced freely, but detailed excerpts and images may require written permission from the copyright holder before publication. Suitable acknowledgement must always be made for the use of others’ work.
On acceptance, after typesetting the author will be asked to check the galley proofs for typographical errors and to answer queries from the copy editor.
Blackwell, at its discretion, is entitled to recover from the author(s) of any paper or report published in the journal, any cost occasioned by alterations made by the author(s) in the printer’s proofs other than correction of typesetting errors and essential additions which update information in the paper: the latter preferably as sentences at the end of existent paragraphs or as new paragraphs.
Offprints and Page Charges
Fifty offprints will be supplied free of charge.
Additional offprints can be ordered on an offprint order form, which is included with the proofs.
UNESCO coupons are acceptable in payment of extra offprints.
Agricultural Economics has no page charges paid by authors. The costs of operating the journal are borne by subscribers, with some additional funding from IAAE.
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