Salah satu “tools” penting yang harus kita kuasai terkait dengan manajemen dan analisis data adalah SPSS. Salah satu software statistik yang user-friendly yang akan membantu kita untuk melakukan tabulasi, melihat data dengan tabulasi serta mampu melakukan analisis.
SPSS (originally, Statistical Package for the Social Sciences) was released in its first version in 1968 after being developed by Norman H. Nie and C. Hadlai Hull. SPSS is among the most widely used programs for statistical analysis in social science. It is used by market researchers, health researchers, survey companies, government, education researchers, marketing organizations and others. The original SPSS manual (Nie, Bent & Hull, 1970) has been described as one of “sociology’s most influential books”. In addition to statistical analysis, data management (case selection, file reshaping, creating derived data) and data documentation (a metadata dictionary is stored in the datafile) are features of the base software.
Website informatif tentang SPSS
Salah satunya, adalah untuk menganalisis regresi logistik dan analisis diskriminan. (Written by: Stephen Lea, University of Exeter, Dept. of Psychology. This covers the theory, practice, interpretation and reporting of logistic regression results)
Atau, analysis of categorial dependent
SPSS survey code book
Data analysis: made it easy
Survey with SPSS 7
Questionnaire design and anlysis using SPSS
Summary guide to SPSS tutorial
SPSS intro and tutorials
Indonesian blog about SPSS
Indonesian blog about econometrics
Multivariate analysis with SPSS
Bagi saya, melakukan design atas sebuah survey yang “proper” merupakan hal yang baru bagi saya. Pengalaman beberapa teman dan pencarian atas informasi di buku dan internet sangat banyak membuka wawasan bagaimana kita bisa merencanakannya dengan baik.
Perencanaan yang baik akan sangat banyak manfaat positifnya, khususnya menjadikan penelitian ini akan lebih “well-managed“.
I just simply copy and paste dari resource [www.nss.gov.au]
Sebuah hal yang sangat sederhana, yaitu bagaimana merencanakan sebuah survey. Pengalaman project dan penelitian yang saya lakukan, seperti belum banyak memberikan pemaknaan dan pemahaman yang sempurna atas sebuah survey. Alhamdulillah, proses pencarian ilmu terus berjalan. Minimal “the big picture” sebuah design survey telah saya kumpulkan dari beberapa source penting.
Ada beberapa hal pertanyaan mendasar yang penting terkait dengan survey design?
- Apa tujuan survey yang anda lakukan? Just refer to your research questions and your model?
- Siapa target populasi anda?
- Bagaimana proses pengambilan sampling? Selanjutnya bagaimana mendapatkan sampling frame, teknik sampling dan metode koleksi data?
- Siapa yang melakukan koleksi data? Training yang dibutuhkan?Bagaimana starteginya?
- Bagaimana membuat kuisoner?
- Apa perlu dilakukan pre-test? FGD untuk merefine kuisoner kita?
Important article about survey design!!! read this
- formulate survey objectives to discuss with consultants,
- identify appropriate survey techniques to collect data,
- design and test simple questionnaires.
surveys are used to collect information in order to answer a question or to make a decision. more formally, they are used to put a value onto some indicator or measure. surveys measure one or more characteristics of a population. these characteristics may be measured by surveying all members of the population, or a sample of the population. a sample survey is a survey of a subset of the population.
a census is an enumeration of the whole population. (see the chapter on 03 samples and censuses for more details.)
the sample is the set of observations which is taken from the population for the purpose of obtaining information about the population. (see the chapter on 03 samples and censuses for more details.)
a unit is the base level at which information is sought. there are two types of units: selection units and reporting units.
a selection unit is a unit that is selected in the survey and a reporting unit is a unit that reports the information required. the reporting unit may not be the same as the selection unit (eg. in a household survey, the selection unit may be a household, but the reporting unit may be any responsible adult living in that household).
the population is the complete set of units from which information is to be obtained and about which inferences are to be made. there are two types of population: target population and survey population. a target population is the population about which information is to be sought and a survey population is the population from which information can be obtained in the survey. the target population is also known as the scope of the survey and the survey population is also known as the coverage of the survey. (see the chapter on 02 the set-up stage of a survey for more details.)
frame/sampling frame the frame is the list of all selection units in the survey population. (see the chapter on 05 frames & population for more details.)
a population parameter is a summary measure of a population, the value of which helps to describe a population. an example of this is average weekly income, which is often used as an indicator of well-being or of spending power in the community.
a sample statistic is a summary value of a variable calculated from the sample.
the set-up stage of a survey
the set-up stage is a very important part of any research, yet its value is often underestimated. most research projects (and therefore, most surveys) which go badly wrong, do so because of inadequate attention given to setting the project up properly. for this reason, any effort to collect information, should not occur until the issues discussed in this section are dealt with. this section is intended to assist researchers and managers in identifying the key factors in planning the research project, analyse their requirements and select the most appropriate method of collecting the necessary information.
aims and objectives the first and most important step, in the collection of any information, is to establish the research objectives clearly. from this basis, it is then possible to translate these objectives into establishing specific information requirements. the objectives should define what the survey results will be used for and may include such uses as the basis for decision-making, the allocation of funds, to analyse the outcome of policies or programs (program evaluation) or to determine the direction of future operations. it is highly recommended that the number of objectives be kept to a minimum. with too many, the information gathering exercise can easily become too unwieldy and costly.
the target population once our uses for the data have been determined, our next requirement is to define the target population. the target population is the group about which we wish to make inferences from the survey data. the target population should be defined in terms of :
- content (eg. all persons),
- units (eg. in households),
- extent (eg. in australia), and
- time frame (eg. 6 september 1991).
an examination of the examples listed in brackets above reveals the target population of the 1991 census of population and housing. a clear definition, such as that shown above, will give the researcher some idea of the study’s potential size, as well as some insight into possible survey methodologies.
note that the target population may not be easily accessible due to logistical or financial restraints. for example, in the census of population and housing, it is difficult to obtain data on the homeless or people who are in transit from one place to another during census day.
when considering the population that is to be studied, an important factor is the units that are to respond to the collection (the reporting units) and the units that are to be selected to access the reporting units (the selection units). an example of the difference between reporting units and selection units is given in aims and objectives, where the selection unit is a household and the reporting unit is any responsible adult resident at that household.
methods of accessing populations are dealt with further in the chapter on 05 frames & population .
conducting preliminary research
this step involves becoming familiar with the issues to be researched. by doing so, researchers obtain a stronger focus for their study, as well as some insights on how best to collect the desired information. preliminary research is done by gathering together relevant reports, information papers, academic journals, books, newspapers and government files. similarly, talking to people who are familiar with the issues should also be undertaken.
establishing data requirements
the first consideration when clarifying information requirements is to clearly define the data items to be collected. only with clear definitions of the terms and concepts involved can the researcher be assured that the data will be relevant to the project’s aims and objectives. standard definitions for data items should be investigated as the use of standards allows comparability between the results from the current investigation and previous data.
a common way to ensure all the appropriate data items are collected is to specify, as early as possible in the planning stages of the collection, the detailed tables to be derived. such specifications not only help clarify the data items to be collected, but the levels or subgroups for which the data is required. assuming an appropriate collection methodology, defining the levels of interest beforehand will help to ensure an adequate sample size is chosen to achieve the desired levels of accuracy.
the definition of concepts also plays a part in identifying the population. the survey objectives define the target population, but the specific data items and output requirements determine the make-up of subgroups inside the population. these subgroups make up the cells on the tables that have been determined in describing the output requirements.
all data items proposed for the survey should be scrutinised closely to establish whether they are consistent with the aims and objectives of the project. it is vital that extra information is not sought because it is of interest or is related to the issues being examined. this may lead to the survey losing its focus and add considerably to the cost and time to do the project.
ideally the information requirements, whether they be factual data (eg. unemployment or inflation rates) or attitudinal data (eg. opinions on a particular topic), and the proposed methods of analysis should be put down in writing, as this can help to focus the researcher’s attention on important considerations affecting the design of the collection.
financial and time constraints and other considerations
apart from the important considerations in survey design outlined above, there are several other aspects that need to be accounted for. the financial and time constraints placed on a survey are often a deciding factor influencing survey design, as well as the size of the survey and the level of accuracy sought. it is therefore important to make both time and financial estimates for each aspect of a survey and monitor them closely.
other aspects include creating or maintaining the survey frame, designing the sample selection, choosing a data collection method, designing the questionnaire and determining the field and data processing procedures.
as described above, the characteristics of our data items often point at the best way to collect our information. how expensive and time-consuming the data are to collect are also often important considerations when choosing whether to run a survey. the availability of similar data from other sources also plays a part, but collating data from many sources may also prove time-consuming and expensive. existing data sources the information that is required may already be available from another data source. research of subject matter documentation, as discussed in conducting preliminary research above, may provide the necessary information on some topics. some data may also be available from government departments and agencies as a by-product of their administrative information (eg. registrar of births, deaths and marriages). previous surveys may also have been carried out in the field of interest. care must be taken that the recording of the data comes from reliable sources and that the definitions of the data items used closely approximate those currently of interest. this is a cheap and fast way of obtaining data so long as the existing data meet the requirements of the research. case study in preparing a case study the researcher seeks to collect and analyse as much data about the chosen subject as possible from a relatively small number of cases. case studies allow greater detail to be gathered for less cost than in most surveys, but the data is less likely to reflect the whole population.
participatory observation participant observation is a method of data collection whereby the researcher seeks to become a member of the group under study, and records data from within. this method is often used in qualitative studies ie. studies that deal with variables which cannot be readily measured such as peoples perception, group dynamics, etc. advantages and disadvantages the main advantages of non-survey methodologies is that they provide data, often quite detailed, in-depth data, at a relatively low cost and that they can result in substantial reductions in the time taken to produce results. however, statistical accuracy may be traded off to achieve these gains. existing data sources may use definitions that do not match the required definitions very well, and the other non-survey methodologies use only very small numbers of subjects in the study and are open to the subjects not being representative of the target population. this does not mean that non-survey methodologies should be overlooked entirely – it only means that care should be taken when analysing their results. for example, if we chose to look at the effect of overcrowding in our hospitals, we may decide to perform a case study or control group experiment rather than a survey as these methods allow the researcher to collect information for a comparatively modest cost.
survey design considerations
after considering all the options available to you, should you decide that a survey is the option most suited to your study, your next task will be to decide upon the survey design. the three objectives of sample surveys are to
use the data collected from a sample of population units (using the sample statistics calculated),
to describe a population, i.e. estimate certain population parameters (descriptive statistics), and
to test statistical hypotheses about the population.
issues relating to the survey design encompass all the methodological and organisational aspects of the survey to be conducted and involve making decisions about how these will be carried out. in doing this, decisions that are technically desirable need to be balanced off against what is practically feasible, and need to take into account the purposes of the survey, the accuracy required in the results, the resources available (ie financial, timing, staffing, and other resources) and other practical considerations. the aim of survey design is to best meet the aims of the survey within the boundaries of the resources that are available. survey design issues to be considered include :
the survey objectives,
the population of interest (or target population),
the reference period for the data,
geographic, demographic boundaries,
the frame and the units,
the sample design and sample size,
the data collection method,
the field procedures and data processing system, and
the tabulations and analyses required.
some of these points have been dealt with in this chapter. the rest are dealt with in the remaining chapters.
survey management involves organising and controlling each aspect of the survey. the staff responsible for the survey need to be skilled and experienced in order to avoid the many pitfalls that confront the researcher new to the field. the operational aspects of a survey require thorough planning and efficient management of financial and human resources. in the course of addressing survey management issues, a researcher may find that the survey needs to be modified before it can be conducted feasibly. since survey management is an integral part of a survey, sufficient resources should be allocated to it to ensure that the survey runs smoothly and produces reliable and timely results.
advertising there are several parts of the survey where advertising is necessary. these include advertising for staff which can be done through the daily newspapers or through centrelink and pre-survey publicity to potential respondents which can be done through an introductory letter sent to respondents. after the survey, the availability of survey results can be advertised through the media or by contacting interested parties. publicity of the implementation of survey results can also raise the usefulness of the study. when advertising for staff, you should specify what the job is, subject of the survey, amount of interviewing work, need for prior experience if required, rate of pay, number of days interviewer is required for, whether evening/weekend work is involved and area where interviews will be conducted.
finance the financial constraints placed on a survey is often a deciding factor influencing the survey. it is therefore important to make financial estimates for each aspect of a survey and to monitor spending (and therefore the progress of the survey) closely. adequate resources should be allocated to survey management as it plays a central role in the conduct of a survey, particularly the most labour intensive part. financial estimates for other aspects of a survey generally fall into three categories:
survey and processing costs.
some areas requiring financial estimates includes advertising, hire of rooms, power, office equipment and supplies, printing of forms and questionnaires, postage, salaries of office and field staff, survey testing, travel expenses, data processing and publication and dissemination. all of these estimates need to be made at an early stage in the development of the study and also monitored along the way.
regardless of particular collection methods used, personnel need to be recruited and trained to collect, despatch and process the survey questionnaires as well as interviewing respondents. when recruiting staff, it is necessary that they have the basic skills and attributes required to do the work, and in the case of a national survey, they must be in or near the areas where they are expected to work. the number of staff that you need to recruit depends on the size of the sample, the length and complexity of questionnaire, the timetable and the availability of funds. staffing levels may vary during the research period depending on staff retention rates or whether there are peak periods or low periods.
the adequacy of training given to interviewers and processing staff has a strong influence on the quality of results obtained from the survey. thorough training of interviewers is important because they have a wide range of tasks to perform and are the main point of contact between the respondents and the researcher. comprehensive training of office staff should enable them to process the survey questionnaires as accurately and as quickly as possible. training can be provided in the form of:
formal training courses, and
“on the job” training.
it is also useful to include some form of home study exercise to test understanding of instructions and survey procedures. interviewers and processing staff will improve as they gain practical experience “on the job” and consolidate their formal training.
training for interviewers includes the purpose of the survey; the scope and coverage of the survey; a general outline of the adopted sampling approach; the format of the questionnaire; recording of the responses; correct interviewing techniques; techniques for avoiding or reducing non-response and maintaining respondent co-operation; field practice; quality control; editing; planning the workload; and administrative arrangements.
training for processing staff
for processing staff the training should cover the purpose of the survey; the scope and coverage of the survey; the questionnaire; the way the responses are recorded; coding; editing; key-punching instructions if the survey responses are to be punched onto a computer database; quality control; and administrative arrangements.
frames and population
once the aims of the survey, data requirements, level of accuracy, data collection method and costs have been worked out, the sample design process is next considered. the sample design refers to what a sample consists of and how the sample is to be obtained. it is concerned with defining the population and the frame, sample size issues, sampling techniques and data collection method. in this chapter, frames and population will be discussed and the other issues will be discussed later in other chapters. population the population is the aggregate or collection of units about which the survey will be conducted. units can refer to people, households, schools, hospitals, businesses etc. there are two different populations that a survey is concerned with. we have a target population, the group of units about which information is wanted, and a survey population, the units that we are able to survey. the target population is also known as the scope of the survey, the population that the survey is aimed at; the survey population is also called the coverage, the population the survey actually covers. ideally the survey population should correspond exactly with the target population, however, the two populations may not match, so the conclusions based on survey data only apply to the survey population. frame the frame refers to the list of units (eg, persons, households, businesses, etc) in the survey population. since the selection of the sample is directly based on this list, the frame is one of the most important tools in the design of a survey. it determines how well a target population is covered, and affects the choice of the data collection method. it is also desirable that the frame contains auxiliary information on the units so that a more efficient sample plan can be developed (auxiliary information is discussed in the chapter on 07 sample design ). the frame should contain contact points for each of the units listed so that it can be used to access the population. this means that for postal surveys the frame should contain postal addresses; for interviewer-based surveys the frame should contain street addresses; and for telephone surveys the frame should contain telephone numbers.
types of frames
there are two types of frames that may be used for survey design: list frames and area frames. list frames a list frame is a list of all of the selection units in the survey population. list frames are commonly used in surveys of businesses. examples of list frames include administrative lists, personnel lists, telephone lists, mailing house lists, association membership lists and the electoral roll. area frames an area frame is a complete and exhaustive list of non-overlapping geographic areas. these areas may be defined by such geographic features as rivers and streets. area frames are used when it is too expensive or complex to maintain a list frame or where no list frame exists and it would be too expensive or complex to create. they are usually used in household surveys where lists of households are only created for selected geographic regions. examples of the geographic areas that may be used to create an area frame include local government areas (lgas), census collector’s district (cds), postcodes, and states.
frame problems and solutions
for most sampling methodologies it is desirable to have a complete list of units or areas from which to select a sample. however, in practice it can be difficult to compile such a complete list and therefore frame bias (ie. the frame is not representative of the target population) is introduced. the bias might result for two reasons: use of the inappropriate frame which may include some out of scope units or may exclude some appropriate units (eg. choosing the wrong units from the frame, for example, choosing non-retail units from a list of businesses when conducting a survey of retail sales); and problems with the composition of the frame frames can become inaccurate for many reasons:
the most common being that populations are subject to continuous change and the frame easily becomes out of date; also
frames are often compiled from inadequate sources, this can sometimes cause frame units to be hard to contact through lack of information.
some of the problems that can occur in the composition of the frame are described below.
missing units (eg exporting businesses) on a frame are those units in the target population that should appear on the frame but do not. these units may have different characteristics to those units which do appear on the frame and therefore, information obtained from the survey will not be representative of the target population. this is referred to as under-coverage and may result in bias.
out -of -scope (or foreign) units
these are units that do appear on the frame but are not part of the target population (eg non-exporting businesses). these units do not contribute to the survey results but they do contribute to costs. selection of a number of foreign elements in the sample reduces the actual sample size, causing larger errors in survey estimates.
duplications refer to units that appear on the frame more than once. this can be due to;
typographical errors in entering units onto the frame;
the same unit is entered under slightly different names;
merging of several smaller frames when the frame is created.
this means that the probability of selection of the units on the frame is no longer known. a unit may be selected more than once in the sample and this reduces the accuracy of the results because fewer different units are sampled. it can also reduce the professional image of the survey.
dead unit is a unit that no longer exists in the population (eg exporting business has folded and no longer exists). deaths on the frame have a similar effect on survey results as out-of-scope units. deaths should not be removed from the frame for future surveys based on sample survey results as deaths in the sample reflect the number of deaths in the non-sample population. retaining dead units in the sample provides an indication of the number of dead units in the survey population. deaths, however, can be removed based on census results.
whilst nils are not a frame problem they are worth mentioning here as they can often be confused with dead units. units that are operating but have a zero return or activity for the survey period are referred to as nils. the zero return for the survey period may be due to a seasonal factor inherent to the business (eg. beachside ice-cream stalls would report zero turnover during winter). these units should not be removed from the frame as they will report non-zero returns at a later date.
solutions to frame problems
it is important to be aware that frames do have problems, so the quality of the frame should be investigated. there are various strategies that may be used if the quality of the frame is in doubt:
you can use the frame anyway and allow for the problems by increasing the sample size at the selection stage and by adjusting the weights at the estimation stage.
if time and resources allow, it may be possible to update the frame.
if another frame exists that also closely approximates the target population, it may be better to use the alternative frame. this situation calls for a trade-off between a frame matching the target population and a frame not quite matching the target population but providing the relevant detailed information.
it may also be possible to combine the frame with related frames to improve the coverage of the target population. this process is often called supplementation as the current frame is supplemented with another one. however, consideration should be given to overlapping units and any differences between the definition of a unit on the two frames.
since the frame provides the means of accessing the population to obtain a sample, considerations should therefore be given to the quality of the frame. frames should be evaluated early in the planning stage since a bad frame will have an affect on the estimates produced at the end. a good frame is up-to-date, does not have any missing units, contains only relevant units, does not include duplicates, is accessible to frame users and contains sufficient information to uniquely identify and contact each unit.
Jaman dahulu seorang rekan saya di FEB Univ. Brawijaya membawa sebuah software dengan nama yang menarik N*dist. Sebuah software kualitatif yang sebenarnya sangat powerfull, namun karena pada saat itu saya sama sekali tidak tertarik dengan software tersebut, saya tidak mengenalnya.
Berjalannya waktu, ternyata N*dist bermetamorfosis menjadi NVIvo. Sebuah software yang saat ini sepertinya sangat happening untuk analisis kualitatif. Meski saya hanya sebagian kecil saja yang melakukan penelitian kualitatif, khususnya FGD maka saya melakukan penjelajahan informasi dan training untuk software satu ini.
Namun yang paling mentrigger saya untuk mengenal lebih dalam, adalah kemampuan NVIvo untuk membantu dalam memanage literature Review.
Berikut adalah link-link dan informasi mengenai NVIvo.
Web resmi Nvivo
NVivo is a qualitative data analysis (QDA) computer software package produced by QSR International. It has been designed for qualitative researchers working with very rich text-based and/or multimedia information, where deep levels of analysis on small or large volumes of data are required.
Nvivo: create a new project
NVivo is used predominantly by academic, government, health and commercial researchers across a diverse range of fields, including social sciences such as anthropology, psychology, communication, sociology, as well as fields such as forensics,tourism and marketing. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/NVivo)
Organize material in NVivo: coding
Saat yang tepat untuk memikirkan kembali apakah thesis ini “on track”, dengan mereview kembali desain riset yang telah diformat sebelumnya. perubahan desain riset ini tentu saja disebabkan oleh beberapa temuan-temuan baru dan fakta di lapangan, yang secara tidak langsung menggeser sedikit tujuan penelitian yang pada akhirnya akan menggeser the whole and entire model dalam penelitian.
So, just do it and Move on… bergerak sedikit demi sedikit, dengan pasti untuk mencapai perubahan yang lebih baik.
Dalam mendesign riset ada 3 hal penting yang harus dilakukan: a) reformulasi kembali tujuan survey; b) identifikasi teknik survey; c) desain dan test kuisoner.
Survey design issues to be considered include :
- the survey objectives,
- the population of interest (or target population),
- the reference period for the data,
- Geographic, demographic boundaries,
- the frame and the units,
- the sample design and sample size,
- the data collection method,
- the questionnaire,
- non-sampling errors,
- the field procedures and data processing system, and
- the tabulations and analyses required.
Relation between Trust and Transaction costs
Statistical Computing Seminars Survey Data Analysis in Stata
Using Stata for Survey Data Analysis
Measuring food security
Examples of analysis
Credit constraint and institutional constraint
Survey design tutorial
Guide to the design of questionnaire
Questionnaire design and analysing the data using SPSS
An overview of questionnaire design
Exploring marketing research / William G. Zikmund, Barry J. Babin.
SPSS Survey tips
STATA for survey manual
Conducting survey data analysis
Stata training manual
23st September 2012
At this stage, there are so many changes and unpredictable events coming into my thesis.
The Andon fishermen is the big drama who change the whole story in my thesis. It will change my objective, hypothesis, sampling design and lastly the analysis. However, I don’t need to be panic, There are always a way to find a solution in this spaghetti bowl problems.
Show must go on!!! Its time to rethink and MOVE ON
Completion of the major review of progress
I am pleased to advise that you have successfully completed your Major Review of Progress and are confirmed in candidature as at 10 September 2012.
I remind you that continuation of your candidature (and any scholarship payment) each year is dependent on satisfactory completion of the Annual Review of Progress and where applicable (remote students only), the Minor Review of Progress.
Should you wish to change your attendance status or any detail of your candidature, please complete the appropriate application form and return it to the Adelaide Graduate Centre. All forms are available for download from the web at: http://www.adelaide.edu.au/graduatecentre/policy/ or on request from the Graduate Centre.
Please contact the Graduate Centre on 8313 5882 should you require any further information or assistance.
With best wishes for the successful completion of your study,
17 September 2012 @ Engineering North N158
Resources dr Uofa http://www.adelaide.edu.au/its/training/
Penggunaan style yang tepat untuk thesis adalah menggunakan Use Body text styles.
- Online view
- Paragraph styles
- Heading 1
- Heading 2 (Hierarchy – Sub.bab)
- Heading 3 (Sub.sub bab)
Membuat styles quotations
Dibuat kalimatnya diitalic, font diperkecil, margin diperpendek. Select, styles > save
Outline view (toolbar dibagian bawah kiri)
Table of content
Insert table of content > Show of levels 9 (as many as you need)
Kalo ada yang dirubah di text, back on the top… F9 keys and Update field
If you want to modifying your table of content, goes to TOC edit
Edit : Heading 1 edit TOC 1; Heading 2 edit TOC 2; Heading 3 edit TOC 3.
Penomoran dalam word (2.1; 2.1.1; 3.1; 3.1.1; 3.1.2)
Table > Insert > Title
Outline number list (Memberi penomoran)
Penamaan untuk gambar (Caption) > Insert caption (figure 1)
copy paste style (font warna biru ukuran 14)
highlight table > go to page lay out > breaks >continue to section break > margin fit page
Hasil observasi #2 Pacitan, 14 September 2012
Another drama dengan sample untuk survey karena wilayah pacitan memiliki karakteristik yang sama dengan sendang biru, dimana sulit sekali ditemukan nelayan lokal karena sebagian besar merupakan nelayan andon yang berasal dr etnis bugis.
Berikut summary report untuk observasi #2 di Pacitan.
Jumlah untuk nelayan sekoci di pacitan sekitar ada 150-200 orang, namun semua itu merupakan nelayan andon yang datang dari bugis. Musim tangkap bulan 4-11. Namun oktober ini sudah mulai pulang, idul adha hampir semua nelayan andon pulang ke makasar.
Untuk transaksi jual beli di pacitan ada beberapa system. Ada yang memakai system kontrak, ada yang memakai system kerjasama lisan. Namun semua itu memakai prinsip kepercayaan antara pengambek dengan pengelola sekoci. Para nelayan hanya menjual ikan pada masing-masing pengambek lokal, yang sebagian besar juga bukan orang asli pacitan (key person). Jika memakai sistem kontrak maka ada kontrak dari pihak pengambek dengan pihak pengelola sekoci (juragan) selama setahun, kontrak biasanya akan diperpanjang ketika terjadi minus. Dalam artian besar hasil tangkapan lebih kecil dari jumlah uang yang telah dipinjamkan oleh pengambek. Setelah terjadi kontrak kerja jika ingin bekerja sama kembali maka pihak juragan akan menghubungi pengambek.
Berbeda dengan system kerja sama lisan, pada akhir bulan paceklik pihak pengambek akan mendatangi para juragan sekoci ke makasar untuk melakukan perjanjian kembali dengan juragan sekoci secara lisan dengan membawa uang untuk memodali keberangkatan tim sekoci ke pacitan. Pelaksanaan kedua system ini sama, segala kebutuhan juragan sekoci untuk hidupnya dan timnya meminta pada para pengambek. Setelah satu tahun (musim tangkap) hasil tangkap dan jumlah uang yang dipinjamkan akan dihitung. Pada dasarnya system kontrak dan system perjanjian lisan merupakan system ijon yang dijelaskan pak yahya pertemuan kemarin.
Peran TPI di pacitan berbeda dengan yang berada di sendang biru. TPI di pacitan hanya untuk fasilitas penimbangan, tidak untuk tempat lelang. Jadi semua kapal sekoci yang bersandar di pelabuhan tamperan telah ada yang memiliki masing-masing (pengambek). Namun semua akan masuk pada TPI untuk penimbangan yang selanjutnya akan diserahkan pada pengambek masing-masing kapal. Penimbangan di TPI akan dikenakan retribusi 5% yang diambil dari harga ikan per kg nya. Dengan rincian 3% dibayar oleh pengambek, dan 2% dibayar oleh tim sekoci. Patokan harga ikan TPI tidak sama dengan patokan harga pengambek. Pembayaran retribusi TPI mengikuti harga standart TPI.
Untuk harga pembelian ikan dari pengambek sebagian besar mengikuti harga pasar yang didapat dari informasi-informasi dari berbagai daerah ( sendang biru dan prigi). Namun ada juga pengambek yang memakai standart harga dari perusahan yang bekerja sama dengan pengambek (ATI dan KML).
Teknis penangkapan ikan di pacitan sama dengan di sendang biru. Alat tangkap yang digunakan memakai pancing (sebagian besar memakai pancing laying-layang) dan memakai umpon rumpon.
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