Effective writing strategies (Dr Cally Guerin)
Workshop Strategi menulis yang dipaparkan oleh ibu Cally di LG24 memberikan basic pemahaman untuk menyiapkan penulis agar mendapatkan flowing tulisan yang baik.
Diawal dipaparkan statement:
“set up expectations in your readers mind, and then meet these expectations as soon as possible.” Lindsay, 1995
Siapa reader kamu? Examiner, Supervisor, Reviewer &Other students. Help you reader clearly understand what you write, clear arguments, apa ide baru kamu.. how to make examiner to say YES. You done a great job.
Beliau juga memaparkan pentingnya PLANNING atau perencanaan tulisan.
Detail planning, each paragraph, key point in every paragraph, dot point.
Topic sentence and supporting evidence
Logical principle how paragraph structured
Make it obvious – clear
So, selanjutnya dalam stage ini pikirkan kembali tentang Informative titles and subheadings, buat menjadi jelas dan betul-betul menjelaskan isi dari paraghraf.
So, dalam tahap ini dianalisis kembali beberapa hal dibawah ini:
- Cohesion and linking
- Outline: paragraph structure and linking and cohesion
- Informative titles and subheadings
- Consider about title, subtitle, chapter and subheadings
- Use topic sentences to introduce paragraph which contains key idea of the paragraph
Berbicara tentang Topic sentence:
- Its like a promise
- If the point doesn’t support that topic sentence, place it elsewhere or leave it out.
Dalam penulisan supporting argument, kadang kamu baca beberapa literature (you think you’ve done work, and need to be included BUT DON’T DO IT hal ini akan mendistract flow argument dalam chapter) atau Ensure other information is directly relevant to the topic sentence.
Introduce big ide > particular sub category > examples
Speaking and writing in my uni – common paragragh structure – zieger 2000
#1 topic sentence
#2 relevant information in paragraph
#3 paragraph structure
#4 old information below new and link to previous sentence within 7-9 words
Its about sentence (old information and new)
- Place old information before new information, and link to previous sentence to promote flow
Addition – also, similarly, furthermore
Sequence – firstly, initially, Following this
Contrast – however, although, whereas
Consequence – as a result, therefore
Certainty – …
Cari bahan selanjutnya di Myuni – writing and speaking at uni
Note-taking – highlighting
Dalam menulis, buat dulu flownya untuk story dalam literature review, baru kemudian pick ide itu muncul dari siapa.
Ini hal yang luar biasa “alhamdulillah” mendapatkan amanah dr Dr Risti Permani untuk menjadi Tutor mata kuliah East Asian Economies II. Sebuah peluang langka yang begitu besar efeknya terhadap pengalaman mengajar internasional di universitas berkelas #8terbaikAustalia. Beberapa materi EAE tentu saja sangat menarik, karena merupakan kombinasi teori dan aplikasi (applied economics) yang sangat relevan untuk dipelajari, khususnya kalau kita merefleksi apa yang terjadi di Indonesia.
Mata kuliah ini akan berdiskusi tentang teori pertumbuhan untuk menjalaskan economic performance ASIA, menganalisis ekonomi Gajah (India) dan Naga (China), Membahas tentang perubahan struktur ekonomi, Mendebat peran demokrasi ekonomi serta memperlajari tentang kebijakan-kebijakan strategis perdagangan.
Bagian 5 tutorial mata kuliah EAE II merupakan salah satu bagian yang menarik yang menjelaskan tentang perubahan struktur ekonomi yang dialami oleh negara-negara asia, seperti: ASEAN, China dan Jepang. Kebijakan industri di berbagai negara di Asia memiliki arti penting, khususnya dalam perubahan struktural yang terjadi di negara-negara tersebut.
Sebelum melangkah jauh, tentu kita perlu memahami secara basic apa yang dimaksud dengan structural transformation, kebijakan industri etc?
so, pertanyaan yang mendasar untuk materi ini adalah:
[Rationales – kenapa mereka ingin melakukan transformasi struktural?]
Structural transformation by definition: Large scale transfer of resources from some sectors to others in a system, necessitated by fundamental changes in its policies or objectives.
Read more: http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/structural-transformation.html#ixzz24hhqpZs9
More understanding about structural transformation from Kuznets http://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/economics/laureates/1971/kuznets-lecture.html
Six characteristics of modern economic growth have emerged in the analysis based on conventional measures of national product and its components, population, labor force, and the like. First and most obvious are the high rates of growth of per capita product and of population in the developed countries – both large multiples of the previous rates observable in these countries and of those in the rest of the world, at least until the recent decade or two.3 Second, the rate of rise in productivity, i.e. of output per unit of all inputs, is high, even when we include among inputs other factors in addition to labor, the major productive factor – and here too the rate is a large multiple of the rate in the past.4 Third, the rate of structural transformation of the economy is high. Major aspects of structural change include the shift away from agriculture to non-agricultural pursuits and, recently, away from industry to services; a change in the scale of productive units, and a related shift from personal enterprise to impersonal organization of economic firms, with a corresponding change in the occupational status of labor.5 Shifts in several others aspects of economic structure could be added (in the structure of consumption, in the relative shares of domestic and foreign supplies, etc.). Fourth, the closely related and extremely important structures of society and its ideology have also changed rapidly. Urbanization and secularization come easily to mind as components of what sociologists term the process of modernization. Fifth, the economically developed countries, by means of the increased power of technology, particularly in transport and communication (both peaceful and warlike), have the propensity to reach out to the rest of the world – thus making for one world in the sense in which this was not true in any pre-modern epoch.6 Sixth, the spread of modern economic growth, despite its worldwide partial effects, is limited in that the economic performance in countries accounting for three-quarters of world population still falls far short of the minimum levels feasible with the potential of modern technology.7
The Industrial Policy plan of a country, sometimes shortened IP, is its official strategic effort to encourage the development and growth of the manufacturing sector of the economy. A country’s infrastructure (transportation, telecommunications and energy industry) is a major part of the manufacturing sector that usually has a key role in the IP. The IP purports to “stimulate specific activities and promote structural change”.
Industrial policies are sector specific, unlike broader macroeconomic policies. They are sometimes labeled as interventionist as opposed to laissez-faire economics. Examples of horizontal, economywide policies are tightening credit or taxing capital gain, while examples of vertical, sector-specific policies comprise protecting textiles from foreign imports or subsidizing export industries. Free market advocates consider industrial policies as interventionist measures typical of mixed economy countries.
Many types of industrial policies contain common elements with other types of interventionist practices such as trade policy and fiscal policy. An example of a typical industrial policy is import-substitution-industrialization (ISI), where trade barriers are temporarily imposed on some key sectors, such as manufacturing. By selectively protecting certain industries, these industries are given time to learn (learning by doing) and upgrade. Once competitive enough, these restrictions are lifted to expose the selected industries to the international market.
Baca selanjutnya di http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Industrial_policy)
Industrial policy in Asia
Can we classify typical patterns of industrialization policies for economic growth in East Asia? Komiya, Okuno and Suzumura (1988) found that industrial policies helped Japanese companies become competitive with multinational corporations by cushioning the dynamic inefficiencies of Japanese markets through the protection of infant industries.
From Flying Geese to Leading Dragons
Flying Geese Pattern to explain Asia’s strcutural changes
The “flying geese” model is an industrialization process framed on “growth – clustering”
Growth-clustering is a phenomenon in which a leading economy (lead goose) propagate growth stimuli to the following economies (following geese)
The stimuli include dissemination of technology, knowledge, information skills, demand, and transplantation of growth-inducing institutional arrangement.
The “flying geese” was used to describe the catching-up industrialization process in East Asia
The model has three aspects
Intra-industry aspect: product development within a particular developing country shifting from import to export
Import à production à export of consumer goods
Inter-industry aspect: sequential appearance of industries from consumer goods to capital goods
Production of textile à electronics à semi conductor
International aspect: subsequent relocation of industries from advanced to developing countries during the latter’s catching-up process
Production of textile in Japan à NIE àSEA à China
Lead goose : USA
1st tier: Japan
2nd: Korea, Taiwan, Hong Kong, Singapore
3rd: Philippines, Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia
4th: Vietnam, China, India
The industrial policy in East Asia
The Japanese model
The Asian model
The Chinese model
Rely on domestic investment à selected key industries were given preferential treatment (eg. tax deductions and exemptions), support for the keiretsu system
Push domestic firm to be competitive with foreign MNCs.
ISI early in the stage, moved toward export oriented product
Collaboration between government & business. The state uses national resources to build infrastructure to underpin rapid industrialisation.
ROK adopt similar model
Promotion of international competitiveness through FDI
Centered on establishing Export-Processing Zones (EPZs) to attract FDI.
Within the EPZ, firms receive preferential treatment
Liberal policy toward FDI, allow 100% foreign for export oriented business.
Similar to the Japanese model, except in its use of FDI.
To foster domestic companies –“pillar industries”— by guiding industrial policy and forming alliances between domestic companies and foreign MNCs.
The most typical case: China’s automotive industry, where the government selected eight domestic firms, gave them preferential treatment and permitted each company to make alliances with up to two foreign companies, such as GM, Ford or Citroen.
(Disummary dr kuliah Dr Achmad Shauki & Dr Risti Permani)
“Kapan ya hari raya 1433H?” tanyaku dalam hati. Kalau menurut kalender Hijra sepatutnya jatuh pad hari Minggu tanggal 19 Agustus. Tapi kenapa 1 Syawal yang merupakan bulan baru tidak sesuai dengan phasa-phasa bulan yang saya lihat di website ini? Padahal menurut website tersebut, 1 Ramadhan bersesuaian dengan terjadinya bulan baru pada tanggal 20 Juli 2012 seperti yang ditunjukkan pada gambar (a). Sedangkan 1 Syawal yang seharusnya jatuh pada tanggal 18 Agustus 2012 (b), malah jatuh pada tanggal 19 Agustus 2012.
Memahami penjelasan lengkap di http://www.hijracalendar.com/
The Islamic calendar (Hijra calendar) is a purely lunar calendar. It contains 12 months that are based on the phases and stages of the moon, and because 12 synodic months is only 12 x 29.53059=354.3671 days, the Islamic calendar is consistently shorter than a tropical year, and therefore it shifts with respect to the Christian calendar. The calendar is based on the Qur’an (Sura IX, 36-37) and its proper observance is a sacred duty for Muslims.
Unfortunately some Muslim astronomers have suggested that lunar date lines should be marked on the world map for the Muslims to begin their fasting and celebrating their Eid. According to them this would depend on the first visibility of the crescent and the date would begin form that place. The so-called curved lunar date lines always keep on changing and they pass through cities, towns and even houses! They do not abide the rules of the date line. So the Lunar date lines are impractical and meaningless. They are neither scientific nor Islamic.
Hijra Calendar is the same astronomical Lunar Calendar and the month begins and ends on conjunction (Astronomical new moon), conjunction being the last day of the month. Sometimes the conjunction falls on 29th day and sometimes on 30th day. Each phase of the moon and its angular distance indicates each date and it is like a natural calendar hung in the sky. Sometimes we cannot see the moon because of the changes in weather, but it does not make any difference in calendar dates because it is related to the motion of the moon. Its physical visibility is not the criterion. The astronomical new moon times and dates are already computed exactly for thousands of years backward and forward.
Software untuk memahami pergerakan bulan http://www.stellarium.org/
Informasi segar bagi pencari informasi data susenas Jawa Timur, karena saat ini bisa diakses Free di website berikut ini. Matur nuwun untuk BPS JATIM
Survey sosial ekonomi nasional Jatim
Jatim dalam angka
Historical story about India
a comparison between India and Chinese economy
Democracy and economic development?
Adam Przeworski Department of Politics New York University
Sustaining Chinese economic growth
The chinese economy
Predictions for chinese economy
China’s economic puzzle
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